Testicular Cancer


There are two sub-types of seminomas, and the classical (typical) seminomas are more likely to occur in men between ages of 30 and 50. Spermatocytic seminomas are less common and are found more frequently in men 55 years and older. However, both types of seminoma tumors may occur in all age groups.


There are four main sub-types of non-seminoma tumors: embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. These types of tumors generally occur between the teen years and early 40s. They also tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas.

Ectopic Testis

What is an ectopic testis?

A ectopic testis is a testicle that, although not an undescended testicle, has taken a non-standard path through the body and ended up in an unusual location.

The positions of the ectopic testis may be: in the lower part of the abdomen, front of thigh, femoral canal, skin of penis or behind the scrotum. The testis is usually developed, and accompanied by an indirect inguinal hernia. It may be separated from the epididymis which may lie in the scrotum.

Duplication of the Testicle

What is duplication of the testicle? 

Polyorchidism is a rare congenital anomaly of the genital tract in which more than two testes are present, usually within the scrotum. To date, less than 100 cases of polyorchidism have been reported in medical literature. The presence of three testis is referred to as triorchidism or tritestis and is the most common occurence. There are characteristic sonographic features of polyorchidism, and the diagnosis is often made on the basis of ultrasonography.

Microscopic Calcification

What is Microscopic Calcification?  

Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively common condition in which there are multiple deposits of tiny calcifications throughout both testes. The most common criteria for diagnosis is the presence of approximately five microcalcifications in one testicle, although definitions have varied in the past. In majority of cases, testicular microlithiasis is bilateral. In itself, testicular microlithiasis is asymptomatic and benign.


What are testicular cysts?

Most lumps found in the scrotum are not cancer. Fluid-filled cysts (hydroceles and epididymal cysts) are very common, especially as men get older. Varicose veins within the scrotum (varicocele) are also common.

Infection of Testes

What are epididymitis and orchitis?

Orchitis is an infection of the testicle. 

Infections within the scrotum usually involve the epididymis and/or testicles. The epididymis is a slender, convoluted (tightly coiled) structure lying on the backside of each testicle. It serves as a reservoir where sperm mature. When the epidiymis or testicle gets infected with bacteria or viruses, it is referred to as epididymitis or orchitis respectively.

Infections within the scrotum are readily treatable if diagnosed quickly. If left undiagnosed and untreated, the infections can advance and have severe consequences. 

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the coiled tube (epididymis) at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. Males of any age can get epididymitis and it impacts less than 1 of every 1,000 males each year. In certain cases, a testicle also may experience additional infection and inflammation as a result of epididymitis. That inflammation is called epididymo-orchitis.

Orchitis (as previously mentioned) may be caused by epididymitis. However it can also be a primary infection. 

Testicular Atrophy

What is Testicular Atrophy?

Testicular atrophy is when the testes shrink due to a loss of some of the germ cells and Leydig cells. If the testes shrink, an individual may experience a lower sperm count, lower testosterone levels, or both, due to the loss of these cells. Testicular atrophy differs from the shrinking that occurs due to cold temperatures. In cooler temperatures, the scrotum retracts or shrinks, pulling the testes closer to the body to maintain warmth. 


  • Age
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Orchitis (Inflammation within the testicle)
  • Diseases
  • Excessive alcohol usage
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Testicular Torsion
  • Varicocele