Microscopic Haematuria

What is Microscopic Haematuria? 

Haematuria is defined as evidence of blood in the urine under microscopy.

Common Causes Of Haematuria

Benign 

  • Renal Masses (eg. angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma)
  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
  • Strictures

Stones

  • Staghorn Calculi
  • Calcium Stones
  • Uric Acis Stones

Infective

  • Pyelonephritis
  • Cystitis
  • Urethritis

Trauma

  • Pelvic Trauma
  • Renal Injuries
  • Foreign Bodies

Renal

  • IgA Nephropathy
  • Thin Basement Membrane Diseases
  • Hereditary Nephritis 
  • Medullary Sponge Kidney

Iatrogenic

  • Recent Endoscopic Procedure (eg. Transurethral Resection of Prostate [TURP])
  • Transrectl Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy
  • Traumatic Cathererisation
  • Radiation
  • Indwelling Urerteric Stents
  • Renal Biopsies
  • Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

Malignant

  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Transitional Cell Carcinoma
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Urothelial Cell Carcinoma
  • Prostate Acinar Adenocarcinoma